Subpart B - Safety standards for bridge workers
§ 214.101 Purpose and Scope.
(a)The purpose of this subpart is to prevent accidents and casualties arising from the performance of work on railway bridges.
(b)This subpart prescribes minimum railway safety rules for railway employees carrying out work on bridges. Each railway and railway contractor may prescribe additional or more stringent operating rules, safety rules and other special instructions that are not inconsistent with this subpart.
(C)These provisions apply to all railway employees, railway workers and railway contractors carrying out work on railway bridges.
(d)Any working conditions involving the protection of railway employees working on railway bridges that are not within the scope of this chapter, including respiratory protection, hazard communication, hearing protection, welding and air exposure standards. Lead, shall be governed by the regulations of the United States Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health.
§ 214.103 Fall protection, general.
(a)Except as provided inparagraph (b)across(d)of this section, when bridge workers work twelve feet or more above the ground or water surface, they must be provided with and must use a personal fall protection system or safety net system. All fall protection systems required by this section must meet the standards set forth in§ 214.105 of this subpart.
(1)This section does not apply if installing the fall arrest system poses a greater risk than the work to be performed. In any action taken by the FRA to enforce fall protection requirements, the railroad or railroad contractor will bear the burden of proving that the installation of such a device presents a greater exposure to risk than the actual performance of the work.
(2)This section does not apply to bridge workers who participate in the inspection of railway bridges carried out in full compliance with the following conditions:
(eu)The railroad or railroad contractor has a written program that requires training, compliance and use of safe procedures associated with the climbing techniques and procedures to be used;
(you)The bridge worker to whom this exception applies has been trained and qualified under this program to perform bridge inspections, has previously been voluntarily assigned to perform inspections under the provision of this program, and has accepted the assignment;
(iii)The bridge worker to whom this exception applies is familiar with proper climbing techniques associated with all bridge structures that the bridge worker is responsible for inspecting;
(4)The bridge worker to whom this exception applies is solely involved in moving on or around the bridge or observing, measuring and recording the dimensions and condition of the bridge and its components; It is
(v)The bridge worker to whom this section applies is provided with all necessary equipment to meet safety needs, including any specialized backup systems needed.
(C)This section does not apply when bridge workers are working on a railroad bridge equipped with walkways and guardrails of sufficient height, width, and strength to prevent a fall, provided that bridge workers do not work beyond the tracks on the side of the bridge. bridge. , on ladders or other lifting devices, or where there are gaps or holes through which a body could fall. When used in place of the fall protection as provided in§ 214.105, That's itparagraph (c)are satisfied with:
(1)Walkways and handrails that meet the standards set forth in the Railroad Engineering Handbook of the American Association of Railroad Engineers; It is
(2)Highways connected to rail bridges, provided bridge workers on the highway deck work or travel within six feet or more of the edge of the highway deck or an opening through which a person could fall
(d)This section does not apply when bridge workers are performing repairs or inspections of a minor nature that are completed by working exclusively between the outside rails, including but not limited to routine welding, nailing, anchoring, resurfacing and replacing tie bolts.
[67 FR 1906, January 15, 2002]
§ 214.105 Fall protection system standards and practices.
(a) General requirements.All fall protection systems required by this subpart shall comply with the following:
(1)Fall protection systems are to be used for personal fall protection only.
(2)Any fall protection system subject to a shock load must be immediately and permanently removed from service unless it is fully inspected by a competent person and determined to be undamaged and suitable for reuse.
(3)All fall protection system components must be protected from abrasion, corrosion or any other form of deterioration.
(4)All fall protection system components must be inspected prior to each use for wear, damage, corrosion, mold, and other deterioration. Defective components will be permanently removed from service.
(5)Before use and after replacement of any component or system, bridge workers must be trained in the equipment's application limits, proper connection, anchoring, and rigging techniques, methods of use, and proper methods of inspecting and storing the equipment.
(6)The railroad or railroad contractor must arrange for immediate rescue of bridge workers in the event of a fall.
(7)Connectors must have a corrosion-resistant finish and all surfaces and edges must be smooth to prevent damage to system interface parts.
(8)Connectors must be of forged, pressed, or formed steel, or made of materials of equivalent strength.
(9)Anchors, including single and double head anchors, must be capable of supporting at least 5,000 pounds per bridge attached, or must be designed, installed and used under the supervision of a qualified person as part of a complete personal protection system. falls that maintain a factor of safety of at least two.
(b) Personal fall arrest systems.All components of a personal fall arrest system must meet the following standards:
(1)Lifelines and vertical lifelines tying a worker to the bridge must have a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds.
(2)Self retracting lifelines and lanyards that automatically limit the free fall distance to two feet or less must have components capable of withstanding a minimum static tensile load of 3,000 pounds applied to the device with the lifeline or safety lanyard in the fully positioned position. extended.
(3)Self retracting lifelines and lanyards that do not limit the free fall distance to two feet or less, lanyards with broken points, and torn and deformed lanyards must be capable of supporting 5,000 pounds applied to the device with the lifeline or lanyard fully extended position.
(4)Horizontal lifelines must be designed, installed and used under the supervision of a competent person, as part of a complete personal fall arrest system that maintains a safety factor of at least two.
(5)Lifelines must not be made of natural fiber rope.
(6)Body harnesses must not be used as a component of personal fall arrest systems.
(7)The personal fall arrest system must limit the maximum arrest force on a bridge worker to 1,800 pounds when used with a body harness.
(8)The personal fall arrest system must bring the bridge worker to a complete stop and limit the maximum deceleration distance a bridge worker travels to 3.5 feet.
(9)The personal fall arrest system must have sufficient strength to withstand twice the potential impact energy of a bridge worker free falling six feet, or the free fall distance allowed by the system, but less
(10)The personal fall arrest system must be arranged so that a bridge worker cannot freely fall more than six feet and cannot touch the ground or any lower horizontal surface of the bridge.
(11)Personal fall arrest systems must be used with the harness attachment point located in the center of the user's back, close to shoulder level or above the user's head.
(12)When vertical lifelines are used, each bridge worker must have a separate lifeline.
(13)Devices used to connect to a horizontal lifeline that can be converted to a vertical lifeline must be lockable in either direction.
(14)D-rings and carabiners must be capable of withstanding a minimum tensile load of 3,600 pounds without cracking, breaking, or permanent deformation.
(15)D-rings and carabiners must be capable of withstanding a minimum tensile load of 5,000 pounds.
(sixteen)Carabiners do not connect with each other.
(17)Carabiners must be dimensionally matched to the member to which they are attached to prevent accidental disengagement, or must be a locking carabiner designed to prevent accidental disengagement.
(18)Unless they are of the locking type, carabiners must not engage:
(eu)Directly next to a strap, rope or metal cable;
(iii)To a D-ring to which another carabiner or other connector is attached;
(4)For a horizontal lifeline; any
(v)For any object that has an inconsistent shape or dimensions in relation to the carabiner, such that unintentional release could occur.
(C) Safety net systems.The use of safety net systems must comply with the following standards and practices:
(1)Safety nets should be installed as close as possible below the walkway/work surface on which bridge workers work, but no more than 30 feet below that surface.
(2)If the distance from the work surface to the net exceeds 30 feet, bridge workers must be protected by personal fall protection systems.
(3)The safety net must be installed so as not to obstruct any fall from the work surface into the net.
(4)Except as provided in this section, safety nets and net installations must be tested at the jobsite after initial installation and before use as a fall protection system, whenever relocated, after major repairs, and at intervals of six months if left in one place. place. The drop test will consist of a 30-inch, plus or minus two inches in diameter, 400-pound sandbag dropped into the overhead net (but not less than 31⁄2ft) work surface to which bridge workers must protect themselves.
(eu)When the railway or railway contractor demonstrates that a drop test is not feasible and, as a result, the test is not carried out, the railway or railway contractor or designated competent person shall certify that the network and its installation comply with the provisions of this section preparing a certification record prior to using the network.
(you)The certification must include an identification of the network, the date the network was determined to be in compliance with this section, and the signature of the person who made that determination. This person's signature will attest that the network and its installation comply with this section. The most recent certification for each network installation must be available at the workplace where the network in question is located.
(5)Safety nets and their installations must be capable of absorbing an impact force equal to that produced by the drop test specified in this section.
(6)The safety net must be installed so that there is no contact with surfaces or structures below the net when subjected to an impact force equal to the drop test specified in this section.
(7)Safety nets should extend beyond the outermost projection of the work surface as follows:
(eu)When the vertical distance from the work level to the horizontal plane of the net is 5 feet or less, the minimum required horizontal distance from the outside edge of the net beyond the edge of the work surface is 8 feet.
(you)When the vertical distance from the work level to the horizontal plane of the net is 5 feet but less than 10 feet, the required minimum horizontal distance from the outside edge of the net beyond the edge of the work surface is 10 feet.
(iii)When the vertical distance from the work level to the horizontal plane of the net is greater than 10 feet, the required minimum horizontal distance from the outside edge of the net beyond the edge of the work surface is 13 feet.
(8)Defective nets will not be used. Safety nets will be inspected at least weekly for mold, wear, damage and other deterioration. Defective components will be permanently removed from service.
(9)Safety nets will be inspected after any event that could affect the integrity of the safety net system.
(10)Tools, debris or other materials that have fallen into the safety net will be removed as soon as possible and at least before the next work shift.
(11)Each safety net must have an edge cord with a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds.
(12)The maximum size of each safety net mesh opening shall not exceed 36 square inches and shall be no more than 6 inches on each side, measured from center to center of the mesh ropes or web. All mesh crossings must be secured to prevent widening of the mesh opening.
(13)Connections between safety net panels must be as strong as the integral components of the net and must be spaced no more than 6 inches apart.
[67 FR 1906, January 15, 2002;67 FR 11055, March 12, 2002]
§ 214.107 Work on or near water.
(a)Bridge workers working in or near water three feet or more deep, or where there is a danger of drowning, must wear life jackets or buoyant work vests that meet US Coast Guard requirements.46 CFR 160.047,160.052, you160.053. Lifeguards that meet U.S. Coast Guard requirements in46 CFR 160.055they will also be easy to access. This section does not apply to bridge workers who use personal fall protection systems or lifelines that comply with this subpart or to bridge workers who work in accordance with the provisions of this subpart.§214.103(b)(2),(C)o(d) of this subpart.
(b)Before each use, all flotation devices must be inspected for defects that reduce their strength or buoyancy by persons designated and trained by the railway or railway contractor. Defective units will not be used.
(C)When life jackets are required byparagraph (a)of this section, circular buoys with at least 90 feet of line and readily available for emergency rescue operations must be provided. The distance between the circular buoys must not exceed 200 feet.
(d)When lifejackets are required, at least one lifeboat, inflatable boat or equivalent device must be immediately available. If a competent person determines that environmental conditions, including weather, water speed and terrain, warrant additional protection, the skiff or boat must be manned.
[70 FR 7050, February 10, 2005]
§ 214.109 Scaffolding.
(a)Scaffolding used in connection with the maintenance, inspection, testing and construction of railway bridges must be constructed and maintained in a safe condition and meet the following minimum requirements:
(1)Each scaffold and each scaffold component, other than suspension cables and guardrail systems, but including foundations and anchors, shall be capable of supporting, without failure, its own weight and at least four times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to he. that scaffold or component scaffold.
(2)Railing systems must be capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 200 pounds applied within two inches of the top edge, in any outward or downward direction, at any point along the top edge.
(3)The height from the top edge of the overhead rails, or equivalent element of the railing system, shall be 42 inches, plus or minus three inches. Supports should be spaced not to exceed eight feet. Baseboards must be a minimum of four inches high.
(4)Intermediate stringers, screens, meshes, intermediate vertical members, solid panels and equivalent structural members shall be capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 150 pounds applied in any downward or outward direction at any point along the length of the trail . intermediate spar or other member.
(5)Intermediate rails should be installed midway between the top edge of the railing system and the walking/work level.
(b)Scaffolding will not be modified or moved while occupied. This paragraph does not apply to the vertical movement of mobile scaffolding which is designed to move vertically when occupied.
(C)An access ladder or equivalent safe access must be provided.
(d)All exposed surfaces must be prepared and cleaned to prevent injuries from lacerations, punctures, tripping or falling hazards.
(mi)All scaffolding design, construction, and repairs must be performed by competent, trained personnel with knowledge of design criteria, intended use, structural limitations, and procedures for proper repair.
(F)Scaffolding and manually operated escalator supports must comply with the following:
(1)All supports for hand-propelled escalators and scaffolding must be capable of withstanding the designed load.
(2)All ladder supports, scaffolding and scaffolding components shall be capable of supporting, without failure, displacement or settling, their own weight and at least four times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to such ladder support, scaffolding or scaffolding component. .
(3)All exposed surfaces must be free of sharp edges or burrs.
(4)The maximum height of the working level must not exceed four times the minimum or minimum dimensions of the base of any escalator support or scaffolding. When the basic mobile unit does not meet this requirement, suitable cantilever structures must be used to achieve this minimum base dimension, or equivalent measures must be taken to support or protect the unit from overturning.
(5)The minimum platform width for any working level shall not be less than 20 inches for mobile scaffolding (towers). Ladder supports must have a minimum step width of 16 inches. The steps of the support of the stairs will be manufactured with non-slip steps.
(6)Guardrails and midrails must meet the requirements listed inparagraph (a)of this section.
(7)A ladder or climbing ladder for proper access and egress must be provided and must be attached or built into the scaffold and located so that, during use, there is no tendency for the scaffold to tip over.
(8)Casters must be capable of withstanding, without failure, at least four times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to that component. All scaffold wheels must be provided with a positive wheel and/or swivel lock to prevent movement. Ladder supports must have at least two of the four wheels and must be of the swivel type.
§ 214.111 Personal protective equipment in general.
With the exception of foot protection, the railway or railroad contractor shall provide and the bridge worker shall wear appropriate personal protective equipment described in this subpart in all operations where there is exposure to hazardous conditions, or where the subpart indicates the need for use such equipment. to reduce risks to railway bridge workers. The railroad or railway contractor will require the use of foot protection where there is a possibility of foot injury.
[67 FR 1908, January 15, 2002]
§ 214.113 Head protection.
(a)Rail bridge workers working in areas where there is a potential risk of head injury from impact, falling or flying objects, electrical shock and burns must receive and wear protective headgear.
(b)Helmets required by this section must meet the requirements of29 CFR 1910.135(b), as established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration of the United States Department of Labor.
[67 FR 1908, January 15, 2002, modified in74 FR 25172, May 27, 2009;81 FR 37884, June 10, 2016]
§ 214.115 Foot protection.
(a)The railroad or railroad contractor must require railroad bridge workers to wear protective foot equipment when foot injuries could result from impact, falling or flying objects, electrical shock or burns, or other hazardous conditions.
(b)The protective foot equipment required by this section must meet the requirements of29 CFR 1910.136(b), as established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration of the United States Department of Labor.
[67 FR 1908, January 15, 2002, modified in74 FR 25172, May 27, 2009;81 FR 37885, June 10, 2016]
§ 214.117 Eye and face protection.
(a)Rail bridge workers must be trained and wear protective eye and face equipment when physical, chemical or radiant agents could potentially cause eye or facial injury.
(b)The eye and face protection equipment required by this section must meet the requirements of29 CFR 1910.133(b), as established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration of the United States Department of Labor.
(C)Eye and face protection required by this section must be kept clean and in good repair. The use of equipment with structural or optical defects is prohibited.
(d)Railway bridge workers whose vision requires the use of corrective lenses, when this section requires them to wear eye protection, must be protected by eyewear or goggles of one of the following types:
(eu)Spectacles whose protective lenses provide optical correction whose frames include protection against objects striking the wearer's eyes around the lenses;
(you)Glasses that can be worn over corrective lenses without changing the fit of the lenses; any
(iii)Spectacles incorporating corrective lenses mounted behind protective lenses.
[67 FR 1908, January 15, 2002;67 FR 11055, March 12, 2002, modified in74 FR 25172, May 27, 2009;81 FR 37885, June 10, 2016]